Anonymous asked: got any advice for a future hs history teacher on including more content about minorities and women? i'm dreading having to stick to the completely anglo centered content standards >.<
Do some research.
I’m sure you know how: start with minority centered Academic databases and museums’ education sites.
Ethel Martin Bolden’s dream of becoming a librarian came true through an opportunity provided by John Whiteman, a Waverly Elementary administrator, who expressed interest in establishing a school library. This motivated Bolden to take library courses at neighboring Allen University and Benedict College. With her acquired knowledge, she established the first elementary library in an all‐black Richland School District One public school in 1946.
In honor of Black History Month in the United States, we’re recognizing African American librarians like Ethel Martin Bolden. The Oxford African American Studies Center is free for Black History Month. Simply use Username: blackhistorymonth and Password: onlineaccess to login.
Photo Credit: Allen University, Chapelle Administration Building, 1530 Harden Street, Columbia, Richland County, SC. Photo by Van Jones Martin 1980. Library of Congress HABS SC,40-COLUM,10A-1. Public domain via Wikimedia Commons.
Oupacademic’s has a series of post about black librarians which can be found here.
Jefferson Franklin Long
On this day, in 1836, Jefferson Franklin Long was sworn in as the first African American Congressman from Georgia. A former slave, he taught himself to read and write and eventually became an active Republican organizer during Reconstruction.
He helped elect 32 African Americans to the state legislature.
White Supremacy ended Reconstruction and Georgia would not elect another African American congressman for over a century when Andrew Young was elected in 1972.
What I find interesting about the bios for Long is that many of them refer to him first as a “black tailor”, “a shopkeeper”, or simply a “merchant tailor”. While his term in Congress was short, he was no less an influential and trailblazing politician.
Please note that I said it was interesting, not surprising.
The Deadly Black Bean Lottery,
When Texas became independent of Mexico hostilities between Mexico and Texas did not immediately cease. In an attempt to destabilize the Republic of Texas, Mexico launched several raids and full scale military incursions in the late 1830’s and 1840’s. One of the largest was the Battle of Salado Creek, in which 200 Texas militia were able to fend off an invasion by 1,600 Mexicans infantry and cavalry.
On November 25th, 1842 the customs officer Alexander Somervell raised an army of 700 Texans to strike back against the Mexicans. The Somervell Expedition was largely successful; retaking Loredo, which was then under Mexican occupation and capturing the town of Guerrero. However, the Somervell Expedition was a privately organized affair that lacked backing by the Texas government. Without supplies and support from Texas, Somervell ordered his men to disband and return home. He believed that he had done enough to convince the Mexicans not to mess with Texas.
Five captains and and 308 men disagreed, and decided to continue the campaign and march against the Mexican city of Ciudad Mier. Unbeknownst to the Texans, Ciudad Mier was guarded by a force of 3,000 Mexican troops. The Texans inflicted heavy casualties, killing over 600 enemy soldiers, but they were forced to surrender as the Mexican’s numerical superiority overwhelmed them.
243 Texans surrendered and were forced on a 250 mile death march through the Mexican desert to the city of Santillo. Due to a lack of food and water, only 159 would survive the march. When they arrived in Santillo, they learned that President Santa Anna had ordered them all executed, however diplomatic efforts by the US and Britain convinced Santa Anna to compromise by only killing 17 of the Texans. To decided who would live and who would die the officer in charge of the executions, Col Domingo Huerta, held a lottery in which the Texans would draw lots. 142 white beans and 17 black beans were placed in a pot. The Texans would then draw the beans, starting with officers, then enlisted men by alphabetical order. Those who drew a white bean would live, those who drew a black bean would die.
The first man to draw a black bean was Major James D. Cocke, who held the bean in his fingers and remarked, “"Boys, I told you so; I never failed in my life to draw a prize." That day 9 men were lined up against a wall and shot by a firing squad. The rest were executed the next day. Incredibly one of those who was to be executed survived (James L. Shephard) by playing dead and later escaping. In addition another man was executed; Capt. Ewen Cameron was personally singled out by Santa Anna to be killed. Refusing a blindfold, his last words were,"for the liberty of Texas, Ewen Cameron can look death in the face." He ordered his own execution squad to fire by shouting, "fuego!".
The remaining white bean survivors were imprisoned and later paroled back to Texas. The events of the death march and the black bean lottery are featured in the Larry McMurtry’s novel Dead Man’s Walk.
“If Martha Washington, Whistler’s Mother, Susan B. Anthony and Pocahontas, why not Dr. Elizabeth Blackwell?” That question was posed by a brochure published to rally public support for a stamp to commemorate the first woman to receive a medical degree in the United States. Endorsed by major professional organizations, the campaign emphasized that only 22 women had been honored on U.S. stamps, and that the 125th anniversary of Blackwell earning her M.D. would be a fitting occasion indeed. (Blackwell earned her medical doctorate on this day in 1849.)
When the stamp was issued in 1974, its 18-cent rate covered surface mail and overseas packages; supporters found it rarely used and difficult to find. Nonetheless, it enjoyed a seven-year life and almost lasted longer: In 1981, when the first-class rate rose to 18 cents, supporters again mounted a campaign—this time unsuccessful—to keep the stamp in use.
The following text is taken from the HerStories digital collection. There you will find lots of interesting documents to explore, not only about Mabel but about other lesbian women in history. It is run by the Lesbian Herstory Archives.
"Mabel Hampton (1902-1989) was an African-American lesbian, an activist, a domestic worker, and a dancer. Born in Winston-Salem, North Carolina, she lost her mother when she was only two years old. For the next five years, Mabel was raised by her maternal grandmother, but she too passed away. In 1909, she moved to Greenwich Village in New York City at age seven. Less than a year after moving in with her aunt, Mabel was raped by her uncle, a minister. She ran away to New Jersey, buying a bus ticket purchased with a nickel given to her by a woman on the street. Luckily, Mabel was taken in by a family that cared for her for the next several years.
As a young woman, Mabel gravitated toward the lively scene in Harlem. In 1920, when she was seventeen, Mabel was wrongfully arrested during a prostitution sting and sentenced to time in Bedford Hills Correctional Facility for Women. Upon her release, she danced at clubs like “The Garden of Joy”, sang as a member of the Lafayette Theater Chorus, and performed with Harlem Renaissance stars such as Gladys Bentley. Mabel engaged in several relationships with women and lived openly as a lesbian.
In 1932, Mabel met Lillian Foster, who would be her partner until Lillian’s death in 1978. With the Harlem Renaissance waning, Mabel sought out employment in other areas, primarily working as a domestic worker and hospital attendant. As a domestic, she worked for the family of Joan Nestle. Mabel and Joan developed a friendship that lasted for decades. When Joan started the Lesbian Herstory Archives in 1974, Mabel joined her as a founding member. Mabel donated her huge collection of lesbian pulp fiction novels and worked tirelessly with Joan and other volunteers to amass lesbian-related materials—literature, biographical information, academic publications, and ephemera—as a resource for the lesbian and gay community.
Mabel was also a vital, enduring element in the gay rights movement-she participated in every gay pride march that occurred during her lifespan, including the first, historic march and demonstration for gay rights in Washington, D.C., which took place in 1979. In 1985, Mabel was named the grand marshal of the New York City Gay Pride March. That same year, Mabel was awarded a lifetime achievement award by the National Coalition of Black Lesbians and Gays.
After the Lesbian Herstory Archives were founded, Mabel carried the LHA banner in many marches. She also worked tirelessly for SAGE, an organization devoted to promoting advocacy and developing services for elderly members of the gay, lesbian, bisexual, and transgender communities. Interviews with Mabel are featured in “Before Stonewall” and “Silent Pioneers”; both movies document the struggle for gay rights and the efforts made to obtain equality.
Joan Nestle started recording Mabel’s oral histories in the late seventies, realising the importance of documenting Mabel’s life story as an example of racial and sexual freedom. In these histories—many of which are featured on this website—Mabel discusses her relationships with women, her struggles with racism, and her identity as an African-American lesbian in the twentieth century. Mabel died of pneumonia in 1989 at the age of eighty-seven. Her life as an advocate, activist, performer, and storyteller lives on in the images and oral histories collected by the Lesbian Herstory Archives.”
Poor People’s Campaign Flyer
"In a sense, we are already at war with and among ourselves. Affluent Americans are locked into suburbs of physical comfort and mental insecurity; poor Americans are locked inside ghettos of material privation and spiritual debilitation; and all of us can almost feel the presence of a kind of social insanity which could lead to national ruin."
—Martin Luther King, Jr., from his Statement on The [Creation of] Poor People’s Campaign; Atlanta, Georgia, December 4, 1967
In January 1968, Dr. King announced the demands of the Poor People’s Campaign: $30 billion for anti-poverty programs, full employment, guaranteed income, and the annual construction of 500,000 affordable residences. He was assassinated only weeks before the campaign was to begin.
Matthew Little, Civil Rights Leader, Dies at 92
Matthew Little was a Minnesota civil rights icon. He moved to the Twin Cities in 1948, and after years of being rejected for jobs because of the color of his skin, he took action to fight for equality and human rights. Little joined the board of the Minneapolis chapter of the NAACP in 1954, a position which he held until retiring from the post in 1993. Little was also among the 58 Minnesota delegates to attend the historic March On Washington in 1963. Little died on Sunday, January 26, 2014.
Happy Birthday Jackie Robinson! January 31, 1919 - October 24, 1972
Civil Rights March on Washington, D.C. [Former National Baseball League player, Jackie Robinson with his son.], 08/28/1963
Rowland Scherman, photographer.
Born 95 years ago today, Jackie Robinson broke the color line in Major League Baseball when he debuted with the Brooklyn Dodgers on April 15, 1947. This decision would not only integrate baseball, but would help the country work to achieve equal rights for all. Civil Rights leader, Martin Luther King, Jr., once commented to baseball pitcher Don Newcombe, “Don, you and Jackie will never know how easy you made my job, through what you went through on the baseball field.”
Before becoming famous, Lt. Jack R. Robinson was court-martialed at Camp Hood, Texas, because he refused to move to the back of the bus after being told to do so by a bus driver and disobeying an order from a superior officer. Robinson was acquitted of all charges and received an honorable discharge, but this was not the only experience he would have in fighting discrimination.
Many of these milestone events from Robinson’s life are documented in primary sources from the National Archives.
"Wilson Chinn, a sixty year old former slave was branded on the forehead with his owner’s initials, ‘V. B. M.’ Chinn is wearing a contraption and irons designed to prevent slave escapes. At lower left is a slave paddle. Ca. 1864. "