whitecolonialism:

December 17, 1944: Internment of Japanese-Americans Comes to an End.

On December 17th, 1944 the United States under the direction of U.S. Major General Henry C. Pratt issued Public Proclamation No. 21 stating that on January 2nd, 1945 all Japanese-Americans “evacuees” from the West Coast could return back to their homes.

The internment of Japanese-Americans began exactly ten weeks after the Empire of Japan bombed Pearl Harbor. Franklin D. Roosevelt signed Executive Order 9066, which gave authorization for the removal of any or all people from military areas. As a result the military defined the entire West Coast, home to a majority of Japanese-Americans as military area. Within a couple of months over 110,000 Japanese-Americans were relocated to internment camps built by the US military scattered all over the nation. For the next two years Japanese-Americans would live under dire living conditions and at times abuse from their military guards.

Throughout World War II ten people were found to be spies for the Empire of Japan, not one of them was of Japanese ancestry. Forty-four year would pass until Ronald Reagan and the United States made an official apology to the surviving Japanese-Americans who were relocated, and were given $20,000 tax-free.

silfarione:

“Give him air! Give him air!” Ethel Skakel Kennedy was screaming after her husband, Robert F. Kennedy lies in a pool of his own blood on the concrete floor, a bullet deep in his brain and another in his neck. 
Kennedy was assassinated just after midnight at the Ambassador Hotel in Los Angeles following a victory speech for the California Primary on June 5, 1968. He was hit three times and five other people also were wounded.
Kennedy was rushed to hospital but he died from the effects of an assassin’s bullet the next day. Photo by Harry Benson.

silfarione:

Give him air! Give him air!Ethel Skakel Kennedy was screaming after her husband, Robert F. Kennedy lies in a pool of his own blood on the concrete floor, a bullet deep in his brain and another in his neck. 

Kennedy was assassinated just after midnight at the Ambassador Hotel in Los Angeles following a victory speech for the California Primary on June 5, 1968. He was hit three times and five other people also were wounded.

Kennedy was rushed to hospital but he died from the effects of an assassin’s bullet the next day. Photo by Harry Benson.

todaysdocument:

Chief Joseph of the Nez Perce
Following the Battle of Bear Paw, ”non-treaty” groups of the Nez Perce surrendered to the United States Army on October 5, 1877, ending the Nez Perce War.  While not the sole leader of the Nez Perce, Joseph emerged as one of the more outspoken and compelling figures in the conflict and during the Nez Perce’s later struggles following their removal from their ancestral lands in the Pacific Northwest.

todaysdocument:

Chief Joseph of the Nez Perce

Following the Battle of Bear Paw, ”non-treaty” groups of the Nez Perce surrendered to the United States Army on October 5, 1877, ending the Nez Perce War.  While not the sole leader of the Nez Perce, Joseph emerged as one of the more outspoken and compelling figures in the conflict and during the Nez Perce’s later struggles following their removal from their ancestral lands in the Pacific Northwest.

collective-history:

Yup’ik shaman exorcising evil spirits from a sick boy.
LOC Frank and Fraces Carpenter Collection

collective-history:

Yup’ik shaman exorcising evil spirits from a sick boy.

LOC Frank and Fraces Carpenter Collection

the-mad-curator:

Iva Toguri aka Tokyo Rose aka Orphan Ann.
Tokyo Rose (alternate spelling Tokio Rose) was a generic name given by Allied forces in the South Pacific during World War II to any of approximately a dozen English-speaking female broadcasters of Japanese propaganda. The intent of these broadcasts was to disrupt the morale of Allied forces listening to the broadcast. American servicemen in the Pacific often listened to the propaganda broadcasts to get a sense, by reading between the lines, of the effect of their military actions. Farther from the action, stories circulated that Tokyo Rose could be unnervingly accurate, naming units and even individual servicemen; though such stories have never been substantiated by documents such as scripts and recorded broadcasts, they have been reflected in popular books and films such as Flags of Our Fathers. Similar rumors surround the propaganda broadcasts of Lord Haw-Haw and Axis Sally.
The name “Tokyo Rose” is most strongly associated with Iva Toguri D’Aquino, an American citizen born to Japanese immigrants. D’Aquino broadcast as “Orphan Ann” during the 15-20 minute D.J. segment of the 75-minute program The Zero Hour on Radio Tokyo (NHK). The program consisted of propaganda-tinged skits and slanted news reports as well as popular American music.
Toguri was detained for a year by the U.S. military before being released for lack of evidence. Department of Justice officials agreed that her broadcasts were “innocuous”. But when Toguri tried to return to the US, a popular uproar ensued, prompting the Federal Bureau of Investigation to renew its investigation of Toguri’s wartime activities. Her 1949 trial resulted in a conviction on one of eight counts of treason. In 1974, investigative journalists found that key witnesses claimed they were forced to lie during testimony. Toguri was pardoned by U.S. President Gerald Ford in 1977.

the-mad-curator:

Iva Toguri aka Tokyo Rose aka Orphan Ann.

Tokyo Rose (alternate spelling Tokio Rose) was a generic name given by Allied forces in the South Pacific during World War II to any of approximately a dozen English-speaking female broadcasters of Japanese propaganda. The intent of these broadcasts was to disrupt the morale of Allied forces listening to the broadcast. American servicemen in the Pacific often listened to the propaganda broadcasts to get a sense, by reading between the lines, of the effect of their military actions. Farther from the action, stories circulated that Tokyo Rose could be unnervingly accurate, naming units and even individual servicemen; though such stories have never been substantiated by documents such as scripts and recorded broadcasts, they have been reflected in popular books and films such as Flags of Our Fathers. Similar rumors surround the propaganda broadcasts of Lord Haw-Haw and Axis Sally.

The name “Tokyo Rose” is most strongly associated with Iva Toguri D’Aquino, an American citizen born to Japanese immigrants. D’Aquino broadcast as “Orphan Ann” during the 15-20 minute D.J. segment of the 75-minute program The Zero Hour on Radio Tokyo (NHK). The program consisted of propaganda-tinged skits and slanted news reports as well as popular American music.

Toguri was detained for a year by the U.S. military before being released for lack of evidence. Department of Justice officials agreed that her broadcasts were “innocuous”. But when Toguri tried to return to the US, a popular uproar ensued, prompting the Federal Bureau of Investigation to renew its investigation of Toguri’s wartime activities. Her 1949 trial resulted in a conviction on one of eight counts of treason. In 1974, investigative journalists found that key witnesses claimed they were forced to lie during testimony. Toguri was pardoned by U.S. President Gerald Ford in 1977.

riversidearchives:

Anna May Wong

These are a few of the records created by the Los Angeles District Office of the US Immigration and Naturalization service related to the travels of actress Anna May Wong.  Wong starred in many movies in the 1920’s and 1930’s, including Daughter of Shanghai and Shanghai Express.

Observing Asian-Pacific American Heritage Month

To pay tribute to the many generations of Asian-Pacific Americans that have enriched our nation’s history, the National Archives at Riverside will be highlighting some of our holdings relating to Asian American history in our region (Southern California, Arizona, and Clark County, NV), including records relating to enforcement of the Chinese Exclusion Act, records relating to Japanese internment and relocation, and many more. 

For more information about Asian-Pacific Heritage Month, see http://asianpacificheritage.gov/

riversidearchives:

This is a Certificate of Identification for Ho Fook Sing, issued at the port in San Francisco on July 2, 1924.  It is held in a series of Chinese Exclusion Act Case Files created by the US Immigration and Naturalization Service’s San Pedro Office. 
Observing Asian-Pacific American Heritage Month
To pay tribute to the many generations of Asian-Pacific Americans that have enriched our nation’s history, the National Archives at Riverside will be highlighting some of our holdings relating to Asian American history in our region (Southern California, Arizona, and Clark County, NV), including records relating to enforcement of the Chinese Exclusion Act, records relating to Japanese internment and relocation, and many more. 
For more information about Asian-Pacific Heritage Month, see http://asianpacificheritage.gov/

riversidearchives:

This is a Certificate of Identification for Ho Fook Sing, issued at the port in San Francisco on July 2, 1924.  It is held in a series of Chinese Exclusion Act Case Files created by the US Immigration and Naturalization Service’s San Pedro Office. 

Observing Asian-Pacific American Heritage Month

To pay tribute to the many generations of Asian-Pacific Americans that have enriched our nation’s history, the National Archives at Riverside will be highlighting some of our holdings relating to Asian American history in our region (Southern California, Arizona, and Clark County, NV), including records relating to enforcement of the Chinese Exclusion Act, records relating to Japanese internment and relocation, and many more. 

For more information about Asian-Pacific Heritage Month, see http://asianpacificheritage.gov/

riversidearchives:

This is an identification certificate, issued by the Imperial Chinese government via the Consulate General in San Fransisco, dated in 1891.  The certificate was one way in which Chinese-American immigrants could vouch for their identity and their eligibility to work and reside in the US.  Proof of identity and residency was necessary (and very important) under the laws enacted with the Chinese Exclusion Act. 
This document is part of a series of general case files for the US District Court in Los Angeles.  The records are held at the National Archives at Riverside.


Observing Asian-Pacific American Heritage Month

To pay tribute to the many generations of Asian-Pacific Americans that have enriched our nation’s history, the National Archives at Riverside will be highlighting some of our holdings relating to Asian American history in our region (Southern California, Arizona, and Clark County, NV), including records relating to enforcement of the Chinese Exclusion Act, records relating to Japanese internment and relocation, and many more. 

For more information about Asian-Pacific Heritage Month, see http://asianpacificheritage.gov/

riversidearchives:

This is an identification certificate, issued by the Imperial Chinese government via the Consulate General in San Fransisco, dated in 1891.  The certificate was one way in which Chinese-American immigrants could vouch for their identity and their eligibility to work and reside in the US.  Proof of identity and residency was necessary (and very important) under the laws enacted with the Chinese Exclusion Act. 

This document is part of a series of general case files for the US District Court in Los Angeles.  The records are held at the National Archives at Riverside.



Observing Asian-Pacific American Heritage Month

To pay tribute to the many generations of Asian-Pacific Americans that have enriched our nation’s history, the National Archives at Riverside will be highlighting some of our holdings relating to Asian American history in our region (Southern California, Arizona, and Clark County, NV), including records relating to enforcement of the Chinese Exclusion Act, records relating to Japanese internment and relocation, and many more. 

For more information about Asian-Pacific Heritage Month, see http://asianpacificheritage.gov/

todaysdocument:


San Francisco, California. The family unit in kept intact in various phases of evacuation of persons of Japanese ancestry. …A view at Wartime Civil Control Administration station, 2020 Van Ness Avenue, on April 6, 1942, when first group of 664 was evacuated from San Francisco. The family unit likewise is preserved in War Relocation Authority centers where evacuees will spend the duration.

This photo of Japanese-American evacuees was taken by Dorothea Lange on April 6, 1942.   Professional photographers such as Lange were commissioned by the WRA to document the daily life and treatment of Japanese-Americans during World War II.

todaysdocument:

San Francisco, California. The family unit in kept intact in various phases of evacuation of persons of Japanese ancestry. …A view at Wartime Civil Control Administration station, 2020 Van Ness Avenue, on April 6, 1942, when first group of 664 was evacuated from San Francisco. The family unit likewise is preserved in War Relocation Authority centers where evacuees will spend the duration.

This photo of Japanese-American evacuees was taken by Dorothea Lange on April 6, 1942.   Professional photographers such as Lange were commissioned by the WRA to document the daily life and treatment of Japanese-Americans during World War II.

life:

Here, five decades after the Freedom Riders put their lives on the line for dignity and equal rights, LIFE.com presents unpublished photos by Schutzer — images that chart the historic journey of King and the nation-changing movement he led, from the monuments of Washington to the streets, churches, and bus depots of the Deep South.
Unpublished: Martin Luther King Jr. and young Freedom Riders in Mongtomery, Alabma, in 1961.

life:

Here, five decades after the Freedom Riders put their lives on the line for dignity and equal rights, LIFE.com presents unpublished photos by Schutzer — images that chart the historic journey of King and the nation-changing movement he led, from the monuments of Washington to the streets, churches, and bus depots of the Deep South.

Unpublished: Martin Luther King Jr. and young Freedom Riders in Mongtomery, Alabma, in 1961.