If I could take all my parts with me when I go somewhere, and not have to say to one of them, “No, you stay home tonight, you won’t be welcome,” because I’m going to an all-white party where I can be gay, but not Black. Or I’m going to a Black poetry reading, and half the poets are antihomosexual, or thousands of situations where something of what I am cannot come with me. The day all the different parts of me can come along, we would have what I would call a revolution.

Excerpt from: Movement in Black : The Collected Poetry of Pat Parker, Black Lesbian Poet and activist, working with Oakland Feminist Women’s Health Center, the Black Panther Party,  the Black Women’s Revolutionary Council and various LGBTQ organizations. 
Read more here.  

If I could take all my parts with me when I go somewhere, and not have to say to one of them, “No, you stay home tonight, you won’t be welcome,” because I’m going to an all-white party where I can be gay, but not Black. Or I’m going to a Black poetry reading, and half the poets are antihomosexual, or thousands of situations where something of what I am cannot come with me. The day all the different parts of me can come along, we would have what I would call a revolution.

Excerpt from: Movement in Black : The Collected Poetry of Pat Parker, Black Lesbian Poet and activist, working with Oakland Feminist Women’s Health Center, the Black Panther Party,  the Black Women’s Revolutionary Council and various LGBTQ organizations.

Read more here.  

Hit the Source: Research, bibliographies, and databases. 
Sources are an interesting thing. If someone throws enough of them at you, you’re inclined to believe that what they’re saying is true, that all the sources are relevant, and that they’re all unbiased and accurate sources. 
This is not always true. Just like the news outlets, some of them have specific biases, or present information in misleading ways. But sources can be incredibly important, and immensely helpful for writing papers. 
Here’s why, as explained by Grinnell:

Citation is important because it is the basis of academics, that is, the pursuit of knowledge. In the academic endeavor, individuals look at evidence and reason about that evidence in their own individual ways. That is, taking what is already known, established, or thought, they use their reasoning power to create new knowledge. In creating this knowledge, they must cite their sources accurately for three main reasons:
Reason One: Because ideas are the currency of academia
Reason Two: Because failing to cite violates the rights of the person who originated the idea. (Implicit or Explicit claims the idea is yours is plagiarism). 
Reason Three: Because academics need to be able to trace the genealogy of ideas 

Read and save the PDF here. I have removed the explanations that follow the reasons for a quick read, but I recommend you go back and read them. It also answers the question: “Doesn’t the ownership of ideas reek of Capitalism?”, and gives a great run-down of citing yourself, citing other people, extended quotations, and laziness in writing.  
In summary: Ideas are valuable, they have ‘ownership’ and ‘credit’ to the people who had them, and tracing how and why ideas change can help you learn. Pretending ideas are of your own invention is plagiarism. 
So what about doing research? People paste long bibliographies and that doesn’t seem to do anything. Why are those needed? 
Bibliographies and Annotated Bibliographies are a list of sources regarding a particular subject or topic - or directly relevant to a particular paper. They may look something like this:

— Screencap of Bibliography: Free People of Color and Creoles of Color
Sometimes, bibliographies are annotated, meaning they give a short description of each entry - perhaps a paragraph of information explaining each source, its usefulness, a summary, or other pertinent information. Annotated bibliographies can cut down on the time you spend trying to determine if a source is relevant for you. 
Purdue OWL gives samples of Annotated Bibliographies here. Here’s a student project from U Michigan that shows an annotated bibliography regarding Chicanos and identity. Here's a much more elaborate annotated bibliography regarding Native American history in Federal Documents. You can see there's a big difference between an extensive annotated bibliography, and a concise one. Both formats, however, can tell you what the bibliography's author thinks of the sources. 
This means that the author of the bibliography may be biased or disregard things that aren’t useful to them, but may be helpful to you! 
The accepted citation format for history and art history is Chicago style, a quick guide can be found here.
Citations tell you: Who wrote or edited something, where it was published, who published it, when it was published, and the title. It can even tell you the volume, edition, and translator. 
When you find a book or journal related to something you’re trying to learn more about, you can look at footnotes, or the bibliography in order to find where they got their information. 
Say I’m looking up slave culture in New Orleans:

Donaldson, Gary A. A Window on Slave Culture: Dances at Congo Square in New Orleans, 1800-1862.” Journal of Negro History 69, no. 2 (Spring 1984): 63-72.

I find this article online, and access it through a database. (I used JStor, in this case.) It was published in 1984, so I already know that anything this paper cites came out in 1984 or before 1984. 
The footnotes (or end notes, in this case, because they came at the end of the paper) tell me where the author got their information:

This author even annotated their endnotes, telling us more information about the sources they used. If any of those end notes seem relevant to me, I can write them down, and look for them later. 
But since this was published in 1984, it might also be helpful to see who has mentioned this paper since 1984 for more current information. 
JStor and Google Scholar (as well as other databases) have helpful buttons like these:


"2 items citing this item"
Other items (written works by the author)
References
and Related Items.

Clicking on “2 items citing this item” gives me a list of things published after the article came out in 1984 that cite this. It actually gives me 3 things when I click on the button:


Pinkster: An Atlantic Creole Festival in a Dutch-American Context
Jeroen Dewulf The Journal of American Folklore Vol. 126, No. 501 (Summer 2013) pp. 245-271 Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/10.5406/jamerfolk.126.501.0245



"Midnight Scenes and Orgies": Public Narratives of Voodoo in New Orleans and Nineteenth-Century Discourses of White Supremacy Michelle Y. Gordon American Quarterly Vol. 64, No. 4 (December 2012) pp. 767-786 

Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/41809523



Enclosure and Run: The Fugitive Recyclopedia of Harryette Mullen’s Writing Robin Tremblay-McGaw MELUS Vol. 35, No. 2, Multi-Ethnic Poetics (SUMMER 2010) pp. 71-94 Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/20720704



They were published in 2010, 2012, and 2013, and while they may not all be helpful, this is how you get a good start looking for things that can help you in your research. It’s a bit like a treasure hunt. You have to follow the directions and clues to find the information you need or want. "Scholarly peer review" is a phrase that means that the information you see has been reviewed, critiqued, or tested by other scholars to see if the information holds up. You can also search for reviews of journal articles. 

Check your sources are related to what you want to talk about or are claiming, see if they are legitimate. 


Writing a Thesis Statement - UNC 
Scholarly vs. Non-Scholarly 1 | 2 | 3
Finding Academic Articles
The CRAAP test
Distinguishing among Scholarly, Popular, and Trade Journals
Locating a Scholarly or Professional Journal 
Evaluating Sources
Why Everything Isn’t Available Online and Free
How to Read Citations (video)
Berkeley Primary History Sources
Yale’s Art History & Archaeology source list & Guide
Previous USH-WG Guide

Hit the Source: Research, bibliographies, and databases. 

Sources are an interesting thing. If someone throws enough of them at you, you’re inclined to believe that what they’re saying is true, that all the sources are relevant, and that they’re all unbiased and accurate sources. 

This is not always true. Just like the news outlets, some of them have specific biases, or present information in misleading ways. But sources can be incredibly important, and immensely helpful for writing papers. 

Here’s why, as explained by Grinnell:

Citation is important because it is the basis of academics, that is, the pursuit of knowledge. In the academic endeavor, individuals look at evidence and reason about that evidence in their own individual ways. That is, taking what is already known, established, or thought, they use their reasoning power to create new knowledge. In creating this knowledge, they must cite their sources accurately for three main reasons:

Reason One: Because ideas are the currency of academia

Reason Two: Because failing to cite violates the rights of the person who originated the idea. (Implicit or Explicit claims the idea is yours is plagiarism). 

Reason Three: Because academics need to be able to trace the genealogy of ideas 

Read and save the PDF here. I have removed the explanations that follow the reasons for a quick read, but I recommend you go back and read them. It also answers the question: “Doesn’t the ownership of ideas reek of Capitalism?”, and gives a great run-down of citing yourself, citing other people, extended quotations, and laziness in writing.  

In summary: Ideas are valuable, they have ‘ownership’ and ‘credit’ to the people who had them, and tracing how and why ideas change can help you learn. Pretending ideas are of your own invention is plagiarism. 

So what about doing research? People paste long bibliographies and that doesn’t seem to do anything. Why are those needed? 

Bibliographies and Annotated Bibliographies are a list of sources regarding a particular subject or topic - or directly relevant to a particular paper. They may look something like this:

image

— Screencap of Bibliography: Free People of Color and Creoles of Color

Sometimes, bibliographies are annotated, meaning they give a short description of each entry - perhaps a paragraph of information explaining each source, its usefulness, a summary, or other pertinent information. Annotated bibliographies can cut down on the time you spend trying to determine if a source is relevant for you. 

Purdue OWL gives samples of Annotated Bibliographies here. Here’s a student project from U Michigan that shows an annotated bibliography regarding Chicanos and identity. Here's a much more elaborate annotated bibliography regarding Native American history in Federal Documents. You can see there's a big difference between an extensive annotated bibliography, and a concise one. Both formats, however, can tell you what the bibliography's author thinks of the sources. 

This means that the author of the bibliography may be biased or disregard things that aren’t useful to them, but may be helpful to you! 

The accepted citation format for history and art history is Chicago style, a quick guide can be found here.

Citations tell you: Who wrote or edited something, where it was published, who published it, when it was published, and the title. It can even tell you the volume, edition, and translator. 

When you find a book or journal related to something you’re trying to learn more about, you can look at footnotes, or the bibliography in order to find where they got their information. 

Say I’m looking up slave culture in New Orleans:

Donaldson, Gary A. A Window on Slave Culture: Dances at Congo Square in New Orleans, 1800-1862.” Journal of Negro History 69, no. 2 (Spring 1984): 63-72.

I find this article online, and access it through a database. (I used JStor, in this case.) It was published in 1984, so I already know that anything this paper cites came out in 1984 or before 1984. 

The footnotes (or end notes, in this case, because they came at the end of the paper) tell me where the author got their information:

image

This author even annotated their endnotes, telling us more information about the sources they used. If any of those end notes seem relevant to me, I can write them down, and look for them later. 

But since this was published in 1984, it might also be helpful to see who has mentioned this paper since 1984 for more current information. 

JStor and Google Scholar (as well as other databases) have helpful buttons like these:

image

"2 items citing this item"

Other items (written works by the author)

References

and Related Items.

Clicking on “2 items citing this item” gives me a list of things published after the article came out in 1984 that cite this. It actually gives me 3 things when I click on the button:

Bibliography: Free People of Color and Creoles of Color » New Orleans Research Collaborative - History and Culture Resources on New Orleans

Early on, New Orleans’ three-tiered racial hierarchy and large population of free people of color (in French, gens de couleur libres) distinguished it from other North American cities. During the colonial and antebellum period, free people of color enjoyed relative affluence and freedom in comparison to enslaved Africans and people of African descent. However, they did not enjoy the same social, political, economic and educational privileges as whites in the city. Even before the Civil War, many free people of color began to describe themselves as “Afro-Creole” or “creoles of color,” adapting the term “Creole” to denote their pre-colonial heritage. Scholars continue to study how the population of free people of color became so substantial in New Orleans; the racial classification of Creoles of color in various time periods; and their roles in colonial, antebellum and postbellum New Orleans society.

This acrylic-on-canvas painting, titled “Racism/Incident at Little Rock,” is one of Ulloa’s most famous works. Created in 1957, it’s a commentary on the desegregation of Central High School in Little Rock, Ark.  - VCStar

Domingo Ulloa is known as an “Undiscovered Master”, and in 1993, was formally declared the “Father of Chicano Art” by the California State Assembly. 

September 25, 1957, became a historic day in the Nation when nine courageous children risked their lives to attend Central High School in Little Rock, Arkansas. Confronted by a hostile crowd and escorted by the Screaming Eagles of the 101st Airborne, they shouldered the burden of integrating a then segregated public school system.   Although the Supreme Court’s Landmark 1954 decision in Brown v. Board of Education struck down racial segregation in public schools, it was the courageous actions of these nine young champions of school integration that tested the strength of that decision.  Their actions not only mobilized a Nation to insure that access to a quality education was granted to all Americans, but they helped to define the civil rights movement.  They became known as the Little Rock Nine.

- Little Rock Nine Foundation


Domingo Ulloa
Braceros, 1960, oil on masonite, 36 x 49 in.Private collection

Art Along the Hyphen: The Mexican-American Generation explores a seminal but overlooked generation of artists who made their careers in Los Angeles between the early twentieth century and the rise of the Chicano art movement in the 1960s. From commercial illustrations that celebrated the mythic Californios to modernist art that engaged directly with the African American Civil Rights era, this exhibition pulls together 100 rarely seen paintings, sculptures, and archival documents to explore how these artists drew inspiration from both their Mexican heritage and American home.
Art Along the Hyphenis part of a unique four-exhibition project calledL.A. Xicanoorganized by the UCLA Chicano Studies Research Center in partnership with the Autry National Center, the Fowler Museum at UCLA, and the Los Angeles County Museum of Art. Other concurrent exhibitions includeIcons of the Invisible: Oscar Castillo(Fowler),Mapping Another L.A.: The Chicano Art Movement(Fowler), andMural Remix: Sandra de la Loza(LACMA). The exhibition is made possible through support from the Getty Foundation and the Andy Warhol Foundation for the Visual Arts.
Born in Pomona and a son of Mexican migrant workers, Ulloa three years earlier had finished Racism/​Incident at Little Rock, inspired by the 1967 Supreme Court decision that ordered an end to public school segregation in Arkansas and across the nation, also in the exhibition. The painting, based on news photos of the Little Rock Nine, a group of black high school students seeking to attend one of the most prestigious high schools in Little Rock, Ark. and who were beneficiaries of the Supreme Court’s decision. Even so, when they showed up for their first day at the school, they had to be escorted by National Guardsmen, so great was the public sentiment against desegregation in general and their presence in particular.
Ulloa’s education as an artist, after military service in World War II, placed him in a local print shop whose output was modeled on the socially conscious work of theTaller de Gráfica Popular in Mexico City, which under the direction of artists Luis Arenal and Pablo O’Higgins turned out pro-​labor and progressive political broadsides, prints and posters through the 20th Century. The TGP remains active today. Ulloa also briefly worked as a house painter in Los Angeles, and one of the works in the exhibition that extols his pro-​Union sympathies is based on a painters’ strike that occurred here.
Tere Romo, one of three guest curators that made the exhibition possible, says that, because the show focuses on artists who received little attention during their lifetimes as members of the Chicano aesthetic, finding and identifying the works that form part of the show became a separate task during the preparation of the exhibition. This meant that the whole project, from initial research to opening night, took seven years. In fact, the Braceros painting became the object of a search worthy of a detective novel.
“It was lost for so long, and images were the only things that were being circulated,” Romo said. “People knew it existed, but no one knew where it was.“Romo said she didn’t even know where to start to go looking for the piece. All her usual sources and academic references just didn’t apply here. On a hunch, she asked the owner ofRacism/​Incident at Little Rock, with whom she was already in talks to arrange its loan, if he might have an idea of who might own the other Ulloa work.
“I said, ‘You know, this is a long shot, but I’m asking everyone who’s ever had any of his work if they know where this piece is,’” she said. “He’s the one that actually gave me a lead that then led to another lead, and then I was able to find it. And I was so happy.”
Romo said the owner of Braceros had wanted to keep the collection, and her ownership of the work, private, but in the end, she graciously agreed to lend it to the exhibition.
“It wasn’t exhibited very much when he made it,” Romo says. “In a sense, this is going to be the first time it really has gotten a much larger exposure. In one exhibition it’s going to be seen by more people than it has been in its whole existence! I think that, to me, was one of the highlights, to be able to not only find the piece but also to be able to show it to a larger public.”
- The Autry Blog

Domingo Ulloa

Braceros, 1960, oil on masonite, 36 x 49 in.
Private collection

Art Along the Hyphen: The Mexican-American Generation explores a seminal but overlooked generation of artists who made their careers in Los Angeles between the early twentieth century and the rise of the Chicano art movement in the 1960s. From commercial illustrations that celebrated the mythic Californios to modernist art that engaged directly with the African American Civil Rights era, this exhibition pulls together 100 rarely seen paintings, sculptures, and archival documents to explore how these artists drew inspiration from both their Mexican heritage and American home.

Art Along the Hyphenis part of a unique four-exhibition project calledL.A. Xicanoorganized by the UCLA Chicano Studies Research Center in partnership with the Autry National Center, the Fowler Museum at UCLA, and the Los Angeles County Museum of Art. Other concurrent exhibitions includeIcons of the Invisible: Oscar Castillo(Fowler),Mapping Another L.A.: The Chicano Art Movement(Fowler), andMural Remix: Sandra de la Loza(LACMA). The exhibition is made possible through support from the Getty Foundation and the Andy Warhol Foundation for the Visual Arts.

Born in Pomona and a son of Mexican migrant workers, Ulloa three years earlier had finished Racism/​Incident at Little Rock, inspired by the 1967 Supreme Court decision that ordered an end to public school segregation in Arkansas and across the nation, also in the exhibition. The painting, based on news photos of the Little Rock Nine, a group of black high school students seeking to attend one of the most prestigious high schools in Little Rock, Ark. and who were beneficiaries of the Supreme Court’s decision. Even so, when they showed up for their first day at the school, they had to be escorted by National Guardsmen, so great was the public sentiment against desegregation in general and their presence in particular.

Ulloa’s education as an artist, after military service in World War II, placed him in a local print shop whose output was modeled on the socially conscious work of theTaller de Gráfica Popular in Mexico City, which under the direction of artists Luis Arenal and Pablo O’Higgins turned out pro-​labor and progressive political broadsides, prints and posters through the 20th Century. The TGP remains active today. Ulloa also briefly worked as a house painter in Los Angeles, and one of the works in the exhibition that extols his pro-​Union sympathies is based on a painters’ strike that occurred here.

Tere Romo, one of three guest curators that made the exhibition possible, says that, because the show focuses on artists who received little attention during their lifetimes as members of the Chicano aesthetic, finding and identifying the works that form part of the show became a separate task during the preparation of the exhibition. This meant that the whole project, from initial research to opening night, took seven years. In fact, the Braceros painting became the object of a search worthy of a detective novel.

“It was lost for so long, and images were the only things that were being circulated,” Romo said. “People knew it existed, but no one knew where it was.“Romo said she didn’t even know where to start to go looking for the piece. All her usual sources and academic references just didn’t apply here. On a hunch, she asked the owner ofRacism/​Incident at Little Rock, with whom she was already in talks to arrange its loan, if he might have an idea of who might own the other Ulloa work.

“I said, ‘You know, this is a long shot, but I’m asking everyone who’s ever had any of his work if they know where this piece is,’” she said. “He’s the one that actually gave me a lead that then led to another lead, and then I was able to find it. And I was so happy.”

Romo said the owner of Braceros had wanted to keep the collection, and her ownership of the work, private, but in the end, she graciously agreed to lend it to the exhibition.

“It wasn’t exhibited very much when he made it,” Romo says. “In a sense, this is going to be the first time it really has gotten a much larger exposure. In one exhibition it’s going to be seen by more people than it has been in its whole existence! I think that, to me, was one of the highlights, to be able to not only find the piece but also to be able to show it to a larger public.”

- The Autry Blog

iowawomensarchives:

iowawomensarchives:

Above: Marlene Booth (second from left) and family at Passover, Des Moines, Iowa, 1955. Iowa Women’s Archives
Filmmaker Marlene Booth, on growing up Jewish in Iowa:

The first Jews to settle in Des Moines had been German Reform Jews, and their success by assimilation set the tone for all of us. “Don’t make waves, don’t rock the boat,” was - and is - the Des Moines Jewish mantra. My aunts’ concern with my behavior and appearance had everything to do with towing that line. It was not just that I might embarrass Baube and my folks; I also risked bringing shame on my extended family and the whole Jewish community. I had it in my power to behave or to become a shandah for the goyim, a scandal in front of the non-Jews. So I grew up feeling, we all did, that the acceptance and well-being of all Des Moines’ Jews were in our hands. God forbid I should be caught wearing jeans downtown… — "Reel Jewish Families" by Marlene Booth, The Scholar and Feminist Online, 2003

That’s the last of our posts for Jewish Heritage Month, but look forward to related content throughout the year, especially now that we’re almost ready to hire an assistant to head up our Jewish Women in Iowa collecting project. Shalom for now!
Iowa Women’s Archives: Guide to the Marlene Booth papers, 1951-1998
Iowa Women’s Archives: Guide to collections relating to Jewish women
View all Women’s History Wednesday posts

Hey y’all, check out the lovely message we got this week about this post:
"Hi, I just wanted to thank you for your post on Marlene Booth. She’s teaching at the University of Hawaii now, and she’s really the sweetest thing ever. Although I heard that she’s a hard teacher, she’s such a wonderful person and she’s doing great work in Hawaii now. :) "
Great to hear!

iowawomensarchives:

iowawomensarchives:

Above: Marlene Booth (second from left) and family at Passover, Des Moines, Iowa, 1955. Iowa Women’s Archives

Filmmaker Marlene Booth, on growing up Jewish in Iowa:

The first Jews to settle in Des Moines had been German Reform Jews, and their success by assimilation set the tone for all of us. “Don’t make waves, don’t rock the boat,” was - and is - the Des Moines Jewish mantra. My aunts’ concern with my behavior and appearance had everything to do with towing that line. It was not just that I might embarrass Baube and my folks; I also risked bringing shame on my extended family and the whole Jewish community. I had it in my power to behave or to become a shandah for the goyim, a scandal in front of the non-Jews. So I grew up feeling, we all did, that the acceptance and well-being of all Des Moines’ Jews were in our hands. God forbid I should be caught wearing jeans downtown… — "Reel Jewish Families" by Marlene Booth, The Scholar and Feminist Online, 2003

That’s the last of our posts for Jewish Heritage Month, but look forward to related content throughout the year, especially now that we’re almost ready to hire an assistant to head up our Jewish Women in Iowa collecting project. Shalom for now!

Iowa Women’s Archives: Guide to the Marlene Booth papers, 1951-1998

Iowa Women’s Archives: Guide to collections relating to Jewish women

View all Women’s History Wednesday posts

Hey y’all, check out the lovely message we got this week about this post:

"Hi, I just wanted to thank you for your post on Marlene Booth. She’s teaching at the University of Hawaii now, and she’s really the sweetest thing ever. Although I heard that she’s a hard teacher, she’s such a wonderful person and she’s doing great work in Hawaii now. :) "

Great to hear!

ucresearch:

In 1942 a young African American Ph.D. in mathematics, David Blackwell, interviewed for a teaching job at Berkeley. He was hired, but not for many years.
When finally invited to join the statistics faculty in 1952, several of Blackwell’s new colleagues told him there was a backstory to his failed application a decade earlier. It had been decided to offer him a position in mathematics, they said, but the wife of the departmental chair, who sometimes invited the faculty to dinner, insisted she would not have a black person in her house — and the offer was squelched.
Blackwell, who eventually became the first tenured black professor in the University of California system, shares this vivid memory in a 10-hour interview with the Bancroft Library’s Regional Oral History Office (ROHO). His life history is part of a recently completed oral-history series on 18 pioneering African American faculty and senior administrators, hired before the advent of affirmative-action policies in the 1970s, who broke barriers and laid the groundwork for those who followed.
Read more →

ucresearch:

In 1942 a young African American Ph.D. in mathematics, David Blackwell, interviewed for a teaching job at Berkeley. He was hired, but not for many years.

When finally invited to join the statistics faculty in 1952, several of Blackwell’s new colleagues told him there was a backstory to his failed application a decade earlier. It had been decided to offer him a position in mathematics, they said, but the wife of the departmental chair, who sometimes invited the faculty to dinner, insisted she would not have a black person in her house — and the offer was squelched.

Blackwell, who eventually became the first tenured black professor in the University of California system, shares this vivid memory in a 10-hour interview with the Bancroft Library’s Regional Oral History Office (ROHO). His life history is part of a recently completed oral-history series on 18 pioneering African American faculty and senior administrators, hired before the advent of affirmative-action policies in the 1970s, who broke barriers and laid the groundwork for those who followed.

Read more

schomburgcenter:

"As an actress, Ms. Dee was a bridge between the Harlem Renaissance and contemporary black theater. Inspired by Paul Robeson whom she met at the Schomburg’s American Negro Theater, she helped make artistry as a form of activism real and meaningful for actors as influential as Harry Belafonte and Audra McDonald." —Dr. Khalil Gibran Muhammad, The Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culture
Image: Ruby Dee and Sydney Poitier in Lorraine Hansberry’s A Raisin in the Sun, 1959. NYPL Digital Gallery, Image ID 5013050.

schomburgcenter:

"As an actress, Ms. Dee was a bridge between the Harlem Renaissance and contemporary black theater. Inspired by Paul Robeson whom she met at the Schomburg’s American Negro Theater, she helped make artistry as a form of activism real and meaningful for actors as influential as Harry Belafonte and Audra McDonald." —Dr. Khalil Gibran Muhammad, The Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culture

Image: Ruby Dee and Sydney Poitier in Lorraine Hansberry’s A Raisin in the Sun, 1959. NYPL Digital Gallery, Image ID 5013050.

According to the Pew Research Hispanic Trends Project, there were 8.4 million unauthorized immigrants employed in the U.S.; representing 5.2 percent of the U.S. labor force (an increase from 3.8 percent in 2000). Their importance was highlighted in a report by Texas Comptroller Susan Combs that stated, “Without the undocumented population, Texas’ work force would decrease by 6.3 percent” and Texas’ gross state product would decrease by 2.1 percent.  Furthermore, certain segments of the U.S. economy, like agriculture, are entirely dependent upon illegal immigrants.

The U.S. Department of Agriculture states that, “about half of the hired workers employed in U.S. crop agriculture were unauthorized, with the overwhelming majority of these workers coming from Mexico.” The USDA has also warned that, “any potential immigration reform could have significant impacts on the U.S. fruit and vegetable industry.” From the perspective of National Milk Producers Federation in 2009, retail milk prices would increase by 61 percent if its immigrant labor force were to be eliminated. 

Echoing the Department of Labor, the USDA, and the National Milk Producers Federation, agricultural labor economist James S. Holt made the following statement to Congress in 2007: “The reality, however, is that if we deported a substantial number of undocumented farm workers, there would be a tremendous labor shortage.”

In terms of overall numbers, The Department of Labor reports that of the 2.5 million farm workers in the U.S., over half (53 percent) are illegal immigrants. Growers and labor unions put this figure at 70 percent

But what about the immense strain on social services and money spent on welfare for these law breakers? The Congressional Budget Office in 2007 answered this question in the following manner: “Over the past two decades, most efforts to estimate the fiscal impact of immigration in the United States have concluded that, in aggregate and over the long term, tax revenues of all types generated by immigrants—both legal and unauthorized—exceed the cost of the services they use.”  According to the New York Times, the chief actuary of the Social Security Administration claims that undocumented workers have contributed close to 10% ($300 billion) of the Social Security Trust Fund.

Read more: http://thehill.com/blogs/congress-blog/foreign-policy/203984-illegal-immigrants-benefit-the-us-economy#ixzz34MDbRpo9 

Statistics & Charts from Pew Hispanic

pogphotoarchives:

Hopi potter (Nampeyo?), Hano Pueblo, Hopi, ArizonaPhotographer: H.F. RobinsonDate: circa 1910-15?Negative Number 021536

pogphotoarchives:

Hopi potter (Nampeyo?), Hano Pueblo, Hopi, Arizona

Photographer: H.F. Robinson
Date: circa 1910-15?
Negative Number 021536